Among the factors contributing to pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly chronic bronchitis, is significant, occurring in 90% of smokers.

Repeated pulmonary embolisms are another common cause of pulmonary hypertension in addition to lung pathology.

Pulmonary hypertension is frequently a complication in patients with heart muscle damage due to conditions such as coronary heart disease, inflammatory myocardial diseases, and heart defects.

In individuals with congenital heart defects who are not eligible for surgical treatment, increased pressure in the pulmonary artery is the primary complication and cause of death. However, postoperative patients with congenital heart defects may also develop pulmonary hypertension.

Autoimmune pathologies, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis, are often associated with pulmonary hypertension.

Severe liver diseases leading to cirrhosis can also complicate with pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, individuals with HIV infection and hematological diseases may experience increased pressure in lung vessels.

If an examination fails to identify the cause of pulmonary hypertension, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension is diagnosed, characterized as an independent disease distinct from secondary pulmonary hypertension, which arises as a complication of various circulatory and respiratory organ diseases.

The exact causes of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension remain unknown, with genetics suspected as a contributing factor. Risk factors include the use of obesity treatment drugs, amphetamines, cocaine, tryptophan, hormonal contraceptives, smoking, and even pregnancy. Genetic factors may also play a role in the development of the disease.

Experts have identified numerous risk factors for pulmonary hypertension, including: 

  • Age from 20 to 40 years;
  • Female;
  • Mutations of some genes play a role in the idiopathic nature of the disease;
  • Intoxication, including drugs;
  • Portal hypertension;
  • Obesity;
  • Tobacco smoking;
  • HIV infection;
  • Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Congenital heart defects, such as the presence of shunts between the systemic and pulmonary vessels;
  • Pulmonary capillary hemangiosis;
  • Systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle;
  • Heart valve pathology;
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
  • Alveolar hypoventilation;
  • Long stay in high mountains;
  • Pulmonary embolism;
  • Sarcoidosis;
  • Tumors of the heart, lungs, mediastinum;
  • Interstitial fibrosis of the lungs;
  • Asbestosis;
  • Tuberculosis;
  • Silicosis;
  • Vasculitis;
  • Developmental disorders of the respiratory system;
  • Taking hormonal medications, including oral contraceptives.